21 Mar 2012

Holy of Holies: Returning to Eden – the Song of Songs, Sexuality & Spirituality

Author: Bobby Valentine | Filed under: Bible, Contemporary Ethics, Exegesis, Hebrew Bible, Sexuality, Song of Songs

Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth.
Your love is more delightful than wine;
delicate is the fragrance of your perfume …
(Song of Songs 1.2, Jerusalem Bible)

For in all the world there is nothing equal to the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel, for all the writings [i.e. Scriptures] are Holy, but the Song of Songs is the Holy of Holies.” (Rabbi Akiba, Mishnah, Yadaim 3.5)

Holy love is the only subject treated in this Song. We must remember that love reveals itself, not by words or phrases, but by action and experience. It is Love which speaks here, and if anyone wishes to understand it, let him first love. Otherwise it would be folly to read this song of love, because it is absolutely impossible for a cold heart to grasp the meaning of language so inflamed.” (Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermon 70.1)

Song of Songs: Entering the Holy of Holies

The Bible.


What word comes to mind next?

Very few people I know, Christian or otherwise, would exclaim, “Spirituality.” Indeed though, as Richard Davidson has massively shown, “Sexuality is writ large on the pages of the OT” [1] the church, long infected with virus of Platonic dualism, has often made the assumption that Spirituality and sexuality are polar opposites. Because the church has viewed it this way, the world has no reason to disagree.

The Song of Songs has always been a dangerous book for many precisely because it so viciously attacks any notion of dualism and is so unabashedly … erotic. Erotic is the correct word – not pornographic – but erotic. And it is in the Bible. Which by its very nature demands we examine our, often not only unbiblical, but anti-biblical assumptions about Spirituality and sexuality.

Sexuality and spirituality are two impulses that lie at the very core of being human. Churches, and the world, are hurting deeply for the lack of witness of the Song of Songs.

Though many churches/Christians act as if they are embarrassed by the Sublime Song of Songs (echoes of the notion that sexuality is somehow tainted or less than holy – i.e. dualism! I was once explicitly told I could not preach from the Song of Songs in a pulpit I occupied for many years) it has historically been one of the most important books in the Christian canon. In another post I will give a brief overview of the history of the book, but for now we can say that during the medieval period the Song was viewed as a sort of Fifth Gospel. There are more surviving Latin manuscripts of the Song of Songs than any other biblical book. There are more medieval sermons from the Song than any other biblical book except the Psalms. Origen produced a massive 10 volume commentary on the Song. For comparison purposes there are 32 surviving Latin commentaries on the Song from the 6th to 11th centuries, while Romans is represented by 9 and Galatians by 6. Bernard of Clairvaux (of whom I will say more later) spent eighteen years studying, singing, praying and preaching through the Song … and only made it to the beginning of chapter 3! The Jews have historically affirmed a very high view of the Song as witnessed by Rabbi Akiba and that the Song is read publicly as the text for the holiest worship day of the year – Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).

Today the Song is, honestly, practically ignored among most Evangelical type Christians. It is true that much of the history of interpretation of the Song has been allegory but still the church was not afraid to read and preach the Song publicly. As Roland Murphy has pointed out, with Bernard specifically in view, “it is paradoxical that Bernard, for all his allegorical flights, often captured the literal meaning of a passage ON THE LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE” [2]. The monks understood on an intuitive level that God was in the mix – even in sexuality.

It was the cancer of Platonic dualism that drove many to view sexuality itself as nothing more than a “necessary evil.” Thus the Song could not actually be celebrating something that was merely a necessary evil – that is sex is needed for procreation. It was believed that to be truly “spiritual” one had to transcend the human body, its functions and its needs/desires. This same worldview, and doctrine, moved some early Christians to deny the reality of the physical incarnation of the Logos and the Gnostics to deny the physical bodily resurrection of Christ and  of believers. The Song is a neo-platonic ascetic nightmare. It had to be “fixed!” For many that solution was allegory but we will see that Bernard though he embraced allegory never de-sexed the Song.

Modernists, with a “modern” worldview, often claim the Song is “secular.” This is even the view of many Christians, who radically misunderstand their own faith and worldview. These readers fail to grasp the worldview of ancient Israel. NOTHING WAS SECULAR in ancient Israel. These Israelites did not walk around dividing their days into sacred and the secular as the heirs of the Enlightenment do. They did not have “spiritual” time and “secular” time. Instead they viewed life holistically.  All life under the sun was lived before and unto God.

Love is a human passion that is God inspired. Those readers who do not see “God” in every line of the Song have a malady that is largely self-inflicted. For the Israelite every moment of life was “infected” by God and this included sexuality. There are many “echoes” in the Song of other biblical stories so much so that ancient Israelite would in fact have seen sexuality, marriage, and burning desire for you mate as sacred yearning.

There is no dichotomy: Sexuality is Sacred precisely because it is from God … and because that passionate intimacy mysteriously mirrors God’s own Trinitarian passion. More on that later too.

song-of-solomonReturning to Eden

There are many connections between the Sublime Song and the first three chapters of Genesis and I will argue for these as my blogs move forward [3]. In the Garden of Eden, the Bible remembers a paradisaical world. It was a world of love, a world of shalom, a world of mutuality, a world lacking shame.

The “Fall,” Genesis 3, reveals that this world of beautiful goodness has been vandalized, even raped. The world in which Israel actually lived, that you and I live in, is a post Genesis 3 world. A world full of sub-par relationships on every level. The “symphony of love” begun in Eden becomes the “cacophony of abuse” in the Fallen world.

But I submit to you that the Song of Songs pictures the redemption of that symphony of love … the Song is God’s call for a return to Eden in the most holy relationship known to humanity – that between a husband and a wife. In the sexual relationship the Song loudly, and proudly, proclaims Paradise Regained. Even in the Fallen world we can experience Eden in our relationships, that is the vision of the Sublime Song. As we will see the Song does not see the couple as the “first couple” from Genesis. The Song is deeply aware, just as Israel knew, we live in a Fallen world. Yet the Song shows the woman and the man rediscovering Edenic values in even the most intimate area of their relationship. They relish one another.

Sex is Good

In light of my conviction that Akiba was right, that the Song of Songs is inherently Spiritual, and inherently theological, I offer the following seven themes as a mini-Song of Songs theology of Sex as we move into these blogs. I believe these are all the Edenic values from the Song that God desires to be in our marriages. Each of these could be expanded greatly but for now I offer just brief commentary.

First, and this is so important, Sexuality is GOOD. Underlying the Song of Songs is the same profound Doctrine of Creation that permeates all of the entire Hebrew Bible. It is this high view of creation that biblical Spirituality revels in. The world and everything in it is good by the proclamation of the Creator. Platonists always question this foundational doctrine. The Song of Songs is the verbal photo commentary on Ecclesiastes 3.11, God “has made everything beautiful in its time.” The Song extols and exhibits the creation of sexuality by God in Genesis 2.

Second, Sexuality is for Couples. Some have proposed various roles for Solomon, the shepherd and the woman. I have doubts that Solomon has any real role in the Song at all. Rather, I see the woman calling her man “Solomon” as ancient flattery. Like a woman today bragging on her husband saying he is hotter than Tom Cruise, Brad Pitt or even Batman. This kind of ancient flirting is actually paralleled in the Ancient Near East as seen vividly in Egyptian love songs (the mysterious “Prince Mehi”). In a return to Eden this couple is utterly “into each other,”  they make no Platonic apologies for it. May more wives and husbands embrace this biblical Spirituality.

Third, Sexuality, contrary to the Fall, is egalitarian. The Sublime Song represents a complete reversal of the values of the Fall. The woman in Song of Songs is hardly a passive, docile, “lady” in the Victorian Ideal. The egalitarian note is sung by her in 2.16 “my beloved is mine and I am his!” In fact, the Woman Lover is the dominant personality in the Song. She carries on the majority of the dialogue (81 verses to 49). She initiates the meetings for lovemaking, she extols his “beauty” passionately, in fact the man has no extensive voice until chapter 4. One of the most interesting questions in the Song is whether or not 7.10, “I am my lover’s and his desire (tesugah) is for me” is a commentary of sorts on Genesis 3.16, “your desire (tesugah) will be for your husband.” In the relationship, as God created it and as God desires it and the Song pictures it the man and woman in a mutual joyful love.

Fourth, related to the above theme, Sexuality is about wholeness. We are not creationally “whole” by ourselves. This theme is graphically shown in the Song by the anxiety the lovers feel during periods of the mate’s absence (3.1-3; 5.6). Absence brings out the meaning of “presence” for the lovers. Lovers need each other to be whole. Each is capable of being independent but they have become “one flesh.”

Fifth, Sexuality is multidimensional. Perhaps we can see the passionate love in the Song as a “live performance” of Genesis 2.24-25. The man is free and unfettered in the Song, and so is the woman. The woman and the man are in a free and spontaneous relationship. Within the Song they are in love for the sake of love. They find joy in mutual physical attraction with unapologetic, and sensually explicit, praise for one another as well as inward qualities of one another. Their relationship is total. After making him feel like he is Mr. Universe she turns and says “this is my beloved and he is my friend” (5.16). The Song reveals fidelity, loyalty and devotion to ones lover. The relationship is God’s creational gift in its totality.

Sixth, Sex, is by God’s design and intent, Pleasurable. Christians with a biblical worldview (as opposed to a neo-platonic, even neo-Gnostic, worldview) should not shy away from this. Sexuality is not simply intercourse but we need not be platonically ashamed or embarrassed of the goodness and “fun” of sex in our covenant relationship. Too long have we in the Church given the impression that a wife or husband or are somehow less than Spiritual, holy, or godly if they are sexually excited by their spouse. They are supposed to be!

It is overlooked, often, so it needs to be stated forthrightly … and in light of what many Christians have falsely claimed in the past … sexuality is not by God’s design fundamentally about procreation. That belief is a concession to creation denying Platonic dualism with no basis in Scripture at all.  The Song of Songs contains not a single reference to the procreative function of sexuality. As in Genesis 2, the sexual relationship between the Lovers is not linked to any utilitarian agenda. God gave “the adam” a companion because “the adam” was lonely, not because of babies. Sex in our covenant relationship does not need any justification to a “superior” end. The union of the lovers – the intimacy – alone is the joy and purpose of sexuality. The Song is not hostile to babies coming but that is not presented as the purpose of sexual intimacy. The Oneness, the intimacy, points beyond itself and mirrors our union with God himself. No wonder it is rapturous!

Seventh, finally, Sexuality is beautiful. Sexuality itself is presented in the Sublime Song as wholesome, good, enjoyable, something that is desired, that is enjoyed without the slightest embarrassment … it is beautiful. As in Genesis 2, the lovers in the Song are “naked and … NOT ASHAMED!” Far from shame they relish it!

Final Song Thoughts

In the Song of Songs, though we live in the Fallen world, we have returned to the Garden of Eden. Though living in a sinful world Lovers, even after the Fall, can still bask in the beauty of Paradise. The vision of the Song of Songs for our marriage relationship is nothing short of breathtaking. It is a vision we need to teach, preach, proclaim … and model.

God knew what he was doing when he gave Israel the Song of Songs. Rabbi Akiba was right. Bernard was right. One will never understand such passionately, even erotically, “inflamed” language if he or she is not first a lover. The plain, literal, sense of the Song of Songs is fraught with Spiritual and theological significance. From the “Old Testament” perspective God is everywhere involved in the Song and his creatures are shown enjoying God’s good gifts. They are shown basking and demonstrating Yahweh’s own passionate love. Their love is just a reflection of that divine love. At the climax of the Song we read

For Love is as strong as death,
passion as fierce as the grave;
The flash of it is a flash of fire,
a flame of Yah[weh] (salhebetyah) himself!
(8.6, my translation)

The passionate love of humans is actually a flash of God’s own love. Our experience of Love, as Bernard correctly (inspite of allegory) suggested points to the Lord of Passionate Love. Such is the theology and the gift of the Song of Songs for the church so horribly mired in platonic dualism.

Now here is a thought to think upon: What if when Lord commanded us to “love him with all your heart, with all your soul and all your might” (Deut 6.4) God had something like the passion revealed in the Song of Songs in mind!? I think he did.

Blessings as we read the Song of Songs together.

See Others in this Series under “Holy of Holies: Returning to Eden.”

Holy of Holies: Returning to Eden #2: Song of Songs and the History of Denying Sexuality

Holy of Holies: Returning to Eden #3: Song of All Songs or Just a Silly Little Love Song?

Holy of Holies: Returning to Eden #4: Celebrating Sex and Egalitarian Women


1]Richard M. Davidson, Flame of Yahweh: Sexuality in the Old Testament (Peabody: Hendrickson, 2007), 1. Davidson’s study is far and away the most exhaustive study of sexuality in the Hebrew Bible measuring 700 pages of text and 150 pages of notes and bib. I disagree with Davidson on some particulars but this book is foundational now.

2] Roland Murphy, “The History of Exegesis as a Hermeneutical Tool: The Song of Songs,” Biblical Theology Bulletin 16 (1986): 89

3] See especially Francis Landy, “The Song of Songs and the Garden of Eden,” Journal of Biblical Literature 98 (1979), 513-528; Phyllis Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978), 145-165; Richard Davidson, Flame of Yahweh, pp. 545-632

9 Responses to “Holy of Holies: Returning to Eden – the Song of Songs, Sexuality & Spirituality”

  1. John Says:

    Very good! We suffer from a Victorian-Puritan prudishness (can we really blame either?) that likely begins as you say with Plato and the ideas of Gnosticism in its many forms. In some ways, non-Christians sometimes free themselves from some of this as they chase Eros, but then they disregard the other aspects of Divine Sexuality, the lasting relationship that is 3-way (God-inclusive). Too many forget that God actually desigbed sex, and what He made is goid, therefore sex (in its designed place, marriage) is irrefutably good.

  2. Anonymous Says:

    It will be interesting to see how this plays out with the relatively common complaint (from wives) in church circles that husbands need to leave their wives alone.

    Sexuality between husband and wife in churches today is completely messed up.

    And we are shocked that pornography is rampant?

    Husbands need to learn to love their wives completely and not be bitter towards them (do we think that bitterness might often be the result of a lack of sex?) and wives need to learn to rejoice in the desire their husbands have for them, even if that leads to more frequent sex than they would otherwise want or permit?

    That said, stupid, foolish husbands who view their wives (from all appearances) as primarily an outlet for sexual frustration are a big problem as well, providing a big reason why some wives don’t want intimacy!

    I believe this will be a great study and should be spread far and wide.

  3. Orion Says:

    I would be interested in your thoughts. In light of the spiritual nature of sexuality, why would intercourse result in both parties being unclean under the Mosaic law? See Leviticus 15:18
    I wonder if many of our current negative attitudes toward sexuality may come from our (mis)understanding of Leviticus 15.

  4. Randall Says:

    This was really interesting. I copied it and sent it to about 30 people. Thanks for posting it.

  5. Stoned-Campbell Disciple Says:

    Thanks for spreading the word Randall.

  6. Stoned-Campbell Disciple Says:


    That is a good question but one that requires a little more explanation than a brief reply right here. I will be discussing that in the course of my exposition of the Song of Songs. I ask for indulgence for the moment.

  7. the verner Says:

    Thanks brother . . .the spirit of that which you write is very good. Looking forward to this study – Godspeed . . .Verner

  8. Tim Says:

    Very well said Bobby. Not at all difficult to agree with. At least three times in my life we have participated in seminars for couples based on the Song of Solomon. Read “Solomon on Sex”. So would you say the Song may not have been composed by Solomon? I’ll read the following as well. Glenn and Phylis Hill, from Nashville, friends of ours, have a ministry devoted to this.

  9. Barbara Says:

    Both words shulamite and solomon point to our relation with YHWH Jesus the Christ, for both have the common origin and that is shalam -to be in covenant of Great joyful Peace- Shalom, to be complete, sound with HIM (see https://biblehub.com/hebrew/7999.htm).When we are with HIM we feel complete, sound, we are in the covenant of Shalom


    From shalam; peaceful (with the article always prefixed, making it a pet name); the Shulammith, an epithet of Solomon’s queen — Shulamite:

    Mark 2:28 Therefore, the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.”…(Sabbath indicates rest, seven, completeness. YHWH Jesus The Christ will reign in the Seventh Millenium

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