I wrote this on September 12 but have not published it.

Days of Remembrance are important to human identity. Yesterday was 9/11, a day of remembrance. I kept my mouth shut. But it was not because I forgot.

I remember where I was when Ronald Reagan was shot, when the Space Shuttle blew up, and that day on Sept 11.

In the Bible “memorial days” occur as well. God directed Israel to remember in worship festivals where the event was “reenacted.” Thus our ancestors in Israel remembered Passover, Tabernacles, Pentecost, Purim. These all memorialized what was wonderful: salvation by God’s gracious hesed. There was also Dedication/Hanukkah that Jesus remembered (Jn 10.22ff) which also points to the faithful grace of God.

But not all memorials were pleasant, or a celebration of God’s goodness, rather they were reminders of our faithlessness to God and neighbor. Thus the Day of Atonement recognized the ever present reality of human sin (and God’s costly remedy). Tisha B’Av confronts Israelites with the memory of the catastrophic hubris of sin. On this day, we remember the long history of wickedness, rebellion, sin, injustice that both we and our fathers and mothers have done. So deep is this ugliness that God resorted to destroying the Temple in Jerusalem in both 586 BC and AD 70.

Israel was not allowed to forget.

They remembered the astonishing grace of God every Sabbath, in pilgrim festivals, in their daily prayers. They were smothered in grace. They also had to remember what they would have like to forget, their culpability in Sin. They confessed their sin on the Day of Atonement and they remembered the horror of it on Tisha B’Av.

These memorials encompassed all of Israel. All Israel was delivered by God’s mighty hand. Likewise they all shared in the memorials of remembrance of our failure. No Israelite “escaped” … it was WE. It was me, my father and mother and grandmother and grandfather that sinned miserably before God and our neighbors.

In the modern world, especially America, we want to remember only certain things. September 11 was a horrific tragedy and I could never forget it even if I tried. But there are things that Americans have embraced amnesia over and swept under the rug.

If the history of Israel, Yahweh’s people, teaches us anything then we must remember both the Grace given and the need for grace (our arrogant rebellion against God in our treatment of fellow image bearers).

Remembering on the Day of Atonement or Tisha B’Av is not an exercise in self loathing. It becomes a moment where truth speaks, forgiveness is granted because grace is given when we face our failures rather than hide them. The memorial becomes a tool for saying “Never Again” will we walk down that path of self-destruction by rebelling against the will of God.

America could learn, and Christians must learn, a great deal from this. The memorials of Israel forced people to recognize the truth of who they were. They were not and never were at any single moment in history some paragon of virtue, righteousness, a superior people. Israel’s days of remembrance kept her from believing the lie humans continue to tell themselves: we are innocent, we are virtuous, we are free from the stain of guilt that shames others.

Israel is, rather, paradigmatic of the human race as a whole: arrogant, self-serving, rebellious, exploiting one another. It is by grace that we are who we are. This is what all the memorial festivals teach, preach, and proclaim.

So in America we remember 9/11 and December 7, rightly so. But why is it that we forget and get angry when the “Trail of Tears” is brought up? the American Holocaust is brought up? Or Wounded Knee? The lynching’s that peppered the “home of the free?”  or any number of less than flattering things?

Should we not remember them for the same reason that Israel was not allowed to forget the Day of Atonement or Tisha B’Av? Such memories humble us, chasten us, and make us “come clean” about ourselves, else we will pursue the sinful satanic lie that we are actually righteous and superior … and it is our dishonesty that allows us to continue to perpetuate such horrors. Self deception is confronted on a massive scale on the Day of Atonement and Tisha B’Av. We need forgiveness!

When we remember a check is placed on our participation in fallenness.  Remembering helps us to love our neighbor by being salt, light and leaven just as God has loved us.

So lets “remember” the whole story not part of it.

The Situation 

First  Corinthians 5 tells us how the apostle Paul handled certain matters related to church discipline. It is, in fact, the longest discussion of church discipline in the New Testament. Here we read the infamous tale of a believer having sexual relations with his father’s wife (5.1-2).  Paul does not mince words in this chapter. He pronounces a curse upon the offender in v.3 and finishes with “Drive out the wicked person from among you” (5.13).

What many Christians today do not realize is that Paul has applied the Law of Moses directly to the “church of God in Corinth.”  It will surprise many to learn that Paul’s entire response to Corinthians is grounded in the authority of the Hebrew Bible.  What does Paul do and why does he do this with the Corinthians? That is what we want to explore in this blog.

For Paul, the church discovers its identity only in relation to the sacred story of Israel recorded in the Scriptures. The Corinthians are one with the people of God, the same people located only at a different point on the timeline.  This is why the authority of Scripture for the Corinthians was simply unquestioned, see my Paul and the Unquestioned Authority of the ‘Old Testament.’

I. Israel was Created to be a Light to the Nations

God had promised Abram that through him all nations would be blessed (Gen 12.1-3).  The ultimate blessing was the Messiah but Israel’s role in the world was not limited to producing the Messiah.  Israel was to the world what the temple was to Israel, a city on a hill that could not be hid, a place where God’s will was supposed to be done on earth as in heaven – to show what a blessed experience it is to dwell in an Edenic relationship with the Creator God.  So Moses says,

See, just as the LORD my God has charged me, I now teach you statutes and ordinances for you to observe in the land that you are about to occupy. You must observe them diligently, for this will show your wisdom and discernment to the peoples; who, when they hear all these statues, will say, ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and discerning people!’ For what other nation has a god so near to it as the LORD our God is whenever we call to him? And what other great nation has statutes and ordinances as just as this entire law that I am setting before you today?” (Deut 4.5-8).

Israel is, as a whole, God’s kingdom of priests on behalf of the world. Again what the Levites and sons of Aaron were to Israel, Israel was to the entire world.  They are holy and set apart. This theme is repeated in various was in the Psalms and the Prophets.

II. Paul Views the Corinthian Church as Israel (Gentiles no more

The first clue to Paul’s approach in 1 Cor 5 is that he assumes the Corinthians are now Israelites. This is of utmost importance.  Paul does not view his converts as Gentiles any more. This is not a rare theme in Paul’s writings but is routinely filtered out by moderns.  They are former gentiles who are now fellow citizens of Israel.   The term ethne in v.1 is translated in the NRSV and most contemporary versions as “pagans” but it is Paul’s normal word for “gentiles.” In 12.2, Paul says “WHEN you were ethne/When you were gentiles …” So NT scholar, Richard Hays, notes Paul “thinks of the Gentile converts at Corinth as Gentiles no longer.”  Paul tells Roman believers that they had been “grafted into the olive tree” thus becoming one with Israel (Rom 11.17).  In Ephesians the apostle tells the gentiles that

you [plural/gentiles] were at that time without Messiah, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world” (2.12)

But that is no longer the situation for gentile believers because “now” they have been brought “near.” Near what? everything they did not have before. “But you are no longer strangers and aliens, but now you [Gentiles] are citizens with the saints” (2.19).

We often fundamentally misunderstand Paul’s language that there is no longer any Jew, Greek, male and female.  These creational distinctions are not removed in Christ.  The stigma attached to them, however, is removed. What was once the basis of division in the fallen age has become to basis of celebration of God’s manifold wisdom in the sanctified diversity of creation (cf. Eph 3.7-13). Gentiles are not Jews but they are now “children of Abraham” and part of Israel and heirs to the covenants of promise.

The Corinthians are Gentile no more. They are Israelites. This is why Paul can claim that the Wilderness generation is indeed the ancestors of the Corinthian congregation (1 Cor 10).  This is why Paul calls the gentiles in Galatia the “Israel of God” (6.16).  Paul does not say “new Israel” or “spiritual Israel” but simply “Israel.” They are grafted by God into the Olive Tree. The church did not replace Israel rather gentiles became part of Israel (just as James indicates in Acts 15). This is fundamental to Paul’s approach to the Corinthians.

III. Cursed is Anyone 

In 1 Cor 5.2-5, the apostle uses some rather shocking language according to some modern believers. First, Paul rebukes Corinthian arrogance for tolerating this man’s behavior (Paul does not think they were being gracious or merciful to him).  They are “arrogant” because (as we shall see) Paul assumes they are in the holy Presence of God.  It takes some serious hubris to flaunt the Presence of God. Second Paul curses the offender (vv. 3-4), “I have already pronounced judgment.

This language by Paul is hardly shocking for any steeped in the language of Scripture, as both he and the Corinthians are (Paul’s numerous allusions to even technical matters of Scripture show the Corinthians knew the Bible).  Paul’s language comes straight out of the “holiness code” in Leviticus and Deuteronomy regarding the very situation at hand.

You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife …” (Lev 18.8)

You shall not have sexual relations with your kinsman’s wife …” (Lev 18.20)

But it is Deuteronomy that supplies the immediate words to Paul

Cursed be anyone who lies with his father’s wife, because he has violated his father’s rights” (Deut 27.20)

Paul imposes this covenantal curse upon the Corinthian church straight out of the Law of Moses. Paul’s directive to remove the offender bringing the curse upon him is from the Law because Paul believes the Corinthians are gentiles no more.

IV. Whole Community, Not Only the Offender

It has been noted by many that Paul does not merely condemn the offender with his curse. Paul condemns the entire community itself.  The whole community shares in this gross sin and offense to the Presence of God.  “You [plural] are arrogant!” Paul is not only a first century Jew steeped in the world of the Hebrew Bible, he is not an individualist like most American believers. Corporate responsibility is anathema in America.  But Paul is not an American.

So Paul is shaped by stories like Achan who brought guilt upon all Israel (Josh 5).  David numbering his mighty men and bringing suffering upon the entire nation (2 Sam 24).  Ezra mourning, confessing and praying over the sins of the entire people (Ezra 9.6-15; Neh 9) and Daniel who does the same (9.4ff).

But it is the community that is in danger not merely the perpetrator in Paul’s mind.  This is because the Corinthians are part of Israel.

IV. Holiness Code is Binding on the Corinthians

Centuries of reading Paul as the enemy of Judaism, and the destroyer of the Old Testament, has literally blinded Christians to the real Paul.  Our unfamiliarity with the “Old Testament” has enabled us to perpetuate myths regarding his teaching and practice. It may not be far from the mark to confess that we have, at times, fundamentally misread Paul. But Paul was at Jerusalem during that epic “council” meeting of elders with James and Peter.  That council clearly did not bind certain “ceremonial” aspects of the Law upon gentiles. However it also did bind certain aspects.  Those aspects come from the Holiness Code in Leviticus regarding the behavior of aliens that live among God’s people.  The rational for the whole is frequently ignored,

for [gar] Moses has been preached in every city on the sabbath for generations” (Acts 15.21)

The point in Acts is that the gentiles would know the ethical do’s and don’ts because they know Moses, who is proclaimed among them.  First Corinthians 5 shows Paul is in complete harmony with the Jerusalem Council.  Leviticus states clearly that the community as a whole is in danger when blatant evil is allowed to dwell in the midst of God’s people. In fact the offender is to be “cut off from the people” otherwise the land will “vomit out” the people from the promised land (which eventually happened), Leviticus 18.24-30.  Paul’s concern for the community as a whole and his directive is based on the Hebrew Bible and the Holiness Code.

VI. Core of Israel’s Story 

Suddenly Paul makes a move that makes no sense to moderns.  He “out of the blue” brings up an extremely technical point about the Passover Feast (5.6-8).  But we need to remember two things, Paul believes the Corinthians are gentiles no more and he believes the entire community is in danger.  Since the Corinthians are not gentiles but now part of Israel, the Exodus is part of their story.  Clearly Paul, or Crispus, has taught the Corinthians the ins and outs of the mechanics of the celebration of the Passover else the paragraph is meaningless to them.

The Passover tells the central story of God’s redemptive grace to create a people within the rebellious world. While Passover involves sacrifice, it is not a sacrifice of atonement. Passover tells of deliverance and ownership. Passover tells of divine protection and distinctiveness. As 1 Corinthians 10 makes clear these Corinthians, former gentiles, are now in the historical line of that generation that experienced the Exodus and the Passover of God. Paul places the Corinthians in the very core of Israel’s story.

This is why they must remove the unclean leaven of gross immorality from their midst. Paul calls them to celebrate the festival which cannot be done with the offender among them.

VII. Back to Deuteronomy: Expel the Wicked 

Paul closes his discussion of discipline by reminding the Corinthians of a previous letter (5.9) and with a list of vices that will not inherit the kingdom of God (5.9-13).  Paul’s directives are not toward nonbelievers but only those who are now the church of God. The Corinthians are distinct from the world but they are not isolated from the world.

For many years, because I too shared in the malady of not knowing my Hebrew Bible, I did not recognize Paul was applying Moses to the Corinthians (remember James said “for Moses is preached”). I did not even know that Paul explicitly quotes the Law in this passage. Paul’s vice list comes straight out of Deuteronomy.  They are:

Immorality (Deut 22.21-22, 30)
Greed (paired with robbers in Corinthians)
Idolatry (Deut 13.1-5; 17.2-7)
Reviler (Deut 19.16-19)
Drunkenness (Deut 21.18-21)
Robber (Deut 24.7, LXX uses “kleptes” for thief)

This is the outline found in Deuteronomy, except for the sexual immorality which Paul places at the beginning because that is the matter at hand.   At the end of this list, that comes from Deuteronomy, Paul quotes Deuteronomy 17.7 from the version the Corinthians would know, the Septuagint.

“Expel the evil person from among you [plural]” (1 Cor 5.13).

Paul’s entire discussion has been grounded in the Hebrew Bible and it culminates in a direct and immediate application of the Law to the Corinthians, “Expel the wickedness.” Richard Hays in his great book Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul, notes,

“Paul could have written, ‘Just as Moses commanded Israel to drive out the evil person, so you too should practice church discipline … But he did not write in this way. The scriptural command is treated as a self-evidently valid word addressed immediately to these Gentiles” (p. 97).


Paul’s approach to the Corinthians is grounded in the assumption that his gentile converts are now Israelites, the sons and daughters of Abraham.  He approaches them as if they are part of the covenant and amenable to the covenant standards of holiness.  Paul’s curse on the man is straight out of Leviticus and Deuteronomy and applies to the man because of the covenant.  Paul’s holding the entire church accountable is also rooted in his firm belief that the Corinthian church is now part of Israel.  They must as a whole break off from association from this person because he has brought pollution into the entire assembly. After taking the Corinthians through a condensed list from his former letter (which may have been instruction in the ethics of the Law) he quotes Deuteronomy to them, “expel the wicked.”  They are to do what Paul has already done in verses 3 and 4. The goal is the salvation of both the individual and the holiness of the Gathered People who are in the Presence of God.

First Corinthians 5 is highly instructive. It destroys the claims that Paul never applied “Old Testament” commands, standards and ethics to Christians in his letters.  Instead we see, once again, that for Paul his gentile converts are now part of God’s renewed Israel which stands together in the Presence of the Creator bringing praises to God’s name (cf. Rom 15.76-13).

First Corinthians 5 shows us, as well as anywhere, what Paul means in 2 Timothy 3.15-17.  The Scriptures of Israel are good for doctrine, good for teaching, instruction in righteousness and equipping the people of God for the life of faith in relationship to God.

Resources for this Blog

G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson, Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament

Richard B. Hays, First Corinthians 

Richard B. Hays, Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul

Richard Oster, First Corinthians 

Approaching Friday’s Psalm

Continuing our series on the Psalms of the Week, we arrive at the psalm “for the day before the Sabbath when the earth was [first] inhabited” (LXX).  Both the Septuagint (LXX) and Mishnah inform us that Psalm 93 held a special place in the Temple’s liturgy every Friday.  And as we have seen, pious Jews in the Second Temple Period (and to this day) followed this Spiritual rhythm in their life. This cluster of psalms, 92-94, was inculcated into the world of the faithful every week.

There are also significant connections between Psalm 93 and Psalm 24, the psalm for the first day of the week (see my Psalm 24: Palm for the First Day of the Week).  Psalm 24 speaks of God in creation and Psalm 93 speaks of Yahweh’s reign over creation. Both psalms speak of the waters/seas of chaos. Both psalms testify to Yahweh’s power in the face of the waters. Both psalms take us to the Temple and the sanctity of the house of God. Thus first day (Sunday) and the day before the Sabbath (Friday, last day of actual creation) are theologically connected in the worship of the Temple and the life of the Jews of Jesus’s day.

Psalm 93 on Friday, Psalm 92 on the Sabbath, Psalm 94 on Wednesday.  Psalm 93 may be outlined as follows: v.1a; vv.1b-2; vv.3-4; v.5. We can translate the psalm as follows.

Yahweh is King,

He is robed in grandeur/majesty
Yahweh is robed, 
He is girded/belted with strength.
The world stands firm;
it cannot be shaken.
Your throne stands firm from of old;
from everlasting You have been.

The seas roar, O Yahweh,
the sea roars its thunder,
the sea roars with pounding. 
Above the thunder of the mighty waters,
more powerful/majestic than the waves of the sea
is Yahweh on high.

Your decrees are utterly sure,
holiness beautifies your house,
O Yahweh, for all times.

Yahweh is King (93.1a)

The kingship of Yahweh is a central theme in the Psalter (see my The Psalms, the Reign of God, and Jesus the Messiah). When the Gospels report that Jesus proclaimed “the good news of  the kingdom of God” (Mk 1.14) no one ever stopped him and asked, “what is the kingdom of God?” Jesus did not invent something new and every Jew was intimately familiar with God’s reign (the phrase “kingdom of God” is better translated into English as “reign of God.”)  They knew the kingship of God from the Hebrew Bible and the Psalms especially.

Yahweh is King is the essential declaration of Psalm 93, everything else in the Psalm is explaining what that means to the Israelite.  In Psalm 93.5, Israelites sang “the LORD is a great God, and a great King above all gods.” In Psalm 96.10, Jesus and pious Jews would sing, “Say among the nations, “Yahweh is King!” In Psalm 99, there rose from the Temple the acclamation “The LORD is King, let the nations tremble,” Why? because he is a “Mighty King, lover of justice” (99.4).

It was while worshiping in the Temple, around 742 BC, that Isaiah, encountered the Great King. There he saw what Psalm 93 confesses. He saw Israel’s true King in majestic glory, attended to by the seraphs as they praised the God of Israel, “holy, holy, holy … the whole earth is full of his glory” (Isa 6.3). Without a word uttered from the King, without a sentence from the seraphs, all it took was a glimpse of Majesty and Isaiah was crushed with the knowledge of his uncleanness. “Woe is me! I am lost, for I am a man of unclean lips and I am among a people of unclean lips, yet my eyes have seen the KING, the LORD of hosts.”

Yahweh is King.  But what is the significance of this according to Psalm 93.  That is what the rest of the psalm has the pious Jew confessing to this day … we Christians too.

God’s Clothing (93.1b-2)

The Hebrew Bible is remarkable hesitant to give any “description” of God. Interestingly we do not find any description of Jesus either.  The psalm says that Yahweh is robed, or clothed, in majesty and girded in strength. In Psalm 104.1, the Creator God’s majesty is said to consist of Yahweh’s being “wrapped in light.” In Psalm 27, worshipers gather in the Temple with only one request of God, “to behold the beauty of the LORD and to meditate” (v.4), perhaps this is what Isaiah was doing when God granted his prayer. The apostle Paul, student of the Psalter he was, says the same that God “dwells in unapproachable light” (1 Tim 6.16).

Majesty, glory, beauty are all words that are struggling to convey the experience of seeing the King. But words cannot convey an experience that even angel eyes cannot behold. The King is glory majesty itself.

But the King is “belted” or “girded” in strength. As Psalm 24.8 notes (the Sunday psalm) God is “strong and mighty … mighty in battle.” To say that the King is girded in strength is to confess that the God of Israel is all powerful.  As we shall see this is directly connected to the sea/waters motif in verses 3-4.  But God, the King, is a Warrior on behalf of the creation established by his throne.

It is precisely because the King has strength that the world is held firm. The language of “the world stands firm” (or as the NRSV renders it, ‘He has established the world‘) is not so much about the initial creation of the world as the ongoing working of the world.  It is because of language like this (and from other places like Wisdom of Solomon) that Hebrews can say that Jesus “sustains” the universe (1.3). God is King indeed because he created the world (Ps 24) but the King did not create and then abandon it as if Yahweh was a deist (see Psalm 104 where God’s intimate hands on approach to creation is gratefully sang).  There are cosmic forces that are enemies of the King. But the King is not only majestic but powerful enough to handle the threats to his kingdom.

The Sea, Threatening Enemy of God’s Kingdom (93.3-4) 

Psalm 93.3-4 are apt to be confusing to we moderns precisely because there is a considerable historical gulf between the social world of the text and ourselves.  The seas/waters in the ancient world of Israel were more than mere water that quenches thirst. They were the symbols the unpredictable, and extremely destructive, forces of chaos that could wipe out life as we know it.  Even in our modern scientific world the power of the sea/water can bring terror to us.  Witnessing the unpredictable flood that comes through a wash in Arizona can shake one to the core of her being. Watch the sea coming in as a tsunami is horrifying. Rain after the forest fire can (and does) produce “flash floods” of terrifyingly destructive power.

In the world that Israel lived, these forces had a name, Yamm. Yamm was a malevolent god. It is not without significance that the very word used for seas/waters in the Hebrew Bible, including here in Psalm 93, is the word yam.  Thanks to the discovery of the Baal Cycle tablets at Ugarit in 1929 and following years we have lots of information on what people thought of Yamm.  The story of Baal and the war with Yamm was told every year and was an integral part of Canaanite mythology (we must recall that they did not believe it was mythology).  According to the story, Baal has taken refuge upon the mountain of god.  Yamm dares to attack the mountain of god to get him.

Yamm the Sea

Yamm the Sea sends messengers to the divine assembly,
Nahar the River dispatches envoys to the Holy Ones … 
They depart at once,
They do not delay.
They head straight to the Mountain of El (God),
They go directly to the divine assembly …
Baal stands beside El … 

The “holy ones” that form the court of the high god El are in sheer terror of the coming of Yamm.  They react like humans to this day do in the face of the rushing wall of water that forms a tsunami. They panic! So the story says they “bury their heads on their knees” and “hide their faces in the cushions” on their couches.

Yamm demands that El “must stop protecting Baal … Surrender Baal and his followers.

El, the high god, is himself powerless to stop Yamm.  High god or not, the power of the chaotic water was more powerful than El. El decides to hand Baal over to Yamm else his holy mountain suffer from the mighty waters.

There follows a great war between Baal (who will not give himself up without a fight) and Yamm the Sea.  He is given a great battle-ax. But “Yamm is too strong … He does not waver.” But the battle is not over.  Baal has another battle-ax with the name “Expeller” that is mighty. And Baal overcomes the Sea and “expels” the threatening flood from the mountain of god. (Quotations from Victor H. Matthews and Don C. Benjamen, Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the Ancient Near East, 3rd Edition, pp. 267-269).

Yamm is the name the ancient inhabitants at Ugarit and Canaan gave to the cosmic force that threatened continuing existence of life in the world.  The biblical authors are fully aware that there are powers in this universe that refuse to submit to the King.  They attack the King by attacking the creation … his kingdom!

But Psalm 93 says that Yahweh is belted with strength! What El was not able to do (he surrendered Baal and his followers), Yahweh the King does not surrender us to the forces of cosmic rebellion. El cannot protect but Yahweh can and does.  And the biblical claim is that it is not Baal that ultimately turns the Tide back, it is the King who is seated on the throne in the Temple.

Yahweh is “more majestic/powerful than the waves of Yam is Yahweh on high!” Because Yahweh the King is majestic and strong the world is not threatened even by Yamm. Psalm 93 is the ancient version of the commercial, “Creation in good hands because Yahweh is King.” The world is stable. Life can flourish. The floods are in fact frightening but Yahweh draws a line in the sand (so to speak) that waters cannot pass.  Yahweh is invulnerable.

The King’s Decrees Keep the Kingdom (93.5)

The Temple is the place where God’s space and human space interlock. It is like a button that is sowed on one piece of material and slips through another piece of material to be on top of the joined material. The Temple is the button of God’s space within the created order.  It is the palace of Yahweh the King. It is the “Oval Office” where the universe is run. This is why the Hebrew Bible quite literally sees the Temple/Zion/Jerusalem as the center of the world.  What follows in v.5 is debated among scholars some even thinking it is a much later attachment to the psalm itself because they do not see how the sudden references to “testimonies/decrees” connects.

But I think v.5 flows quite naturally from the psalm.  A weak king cannot govern his kingdom.  El’s decrees were not sure, there was not safety in them.  Even the very presence of El did not ensure the safety of even Baal! But decree of a powerful king is an extension of the power of the King himself. They are as powerful and effective as the One on the throne.  Sovereignty intrinsically assures the stability and welfare of the realm of the King. Unlike some limited potentate whose decrees may die with him, Yahweh’s decrees are sure … which we can translate as “enduring.” The glorious King has provided direction for the citizens of the kingdom to thrive.  Through the decrees we experience the King’s reign, stability and full life.

God’s house, the Temple, is the place where we come to beautified in holiness. It is as if some of God’s own beauty “rubs off” on those seeking audience with the King of Glory.

Wrapping Up

Psalm 93 reminds Jews in Jesus day, and Christians today, that Yahweh is Sovereign. On the “day before the Sabbath” in which God “rested,” we are reminded that the Creator does not simply create but sustains, protects, and battles the forces that would threaten that creation.  The universe is safe, it is in good hands, because Yahweh is on the Throne in the Temple. We trust in the King and remain faithful to the King by organizing our lives in accordance with the testimonies of the realm.  On this day we say in the face of Yamm, in the face of the forces of evil, in the face of those who would rip our worlds apart: We are more than conquerors because …

YHWH MALAK … Yahweh is King

Pray Psalm 93 every Friday

Orientation to Sabbath in Psalm 92

We continue our series on the Psalms of Week.  In this blog we examine the psalm sung in the Temple, and meditated on by all pious Jews, on the Sabbath. Psalm 92.

Christians in general, Evangelicals/Restorationists in particular, have suffered from serious prejudicial views regarding “sabbath.” These prejudices are rooted in centuries of caricature following the biblical period but have virtually nothing to do with what either the Hebrew Bible, or “New Testament,” teaches about the meaning of the Sabbath day. Sabbath is equated with all manner of supposed Old Testament legalism that, “thank God Jesus nailed to the cross!” But we need to be careful not to import things into the Bible but rather we need to read things out of the Bible that are actually there.

Psalm 92, what the Prophet Anna, Mary, Jesus, Paul, the Hebrews Preacher and Jews in general sang every Saturday, gives us in a nutshell what shabbat is all about. The themes are:

1) Thanksgiving
2) Celebration of God’s creation
3) Exaltation of Yahweh’s steadfast love/HESED
4) God defeats the enemies
5) God’s people flourish in his Presence

These themes are the heartbeat of Sabbath as experienced by Jews in Jesus’s day. Sabbath has two poles in the Bible: In Love God created the good and beautiful world and In Love Yahweh redeemed us from certain death in slavery. The North Pole of Creation is found in Genesis 2.1-3 and Exodus 20.8-11. The South Pole is found in Deuteronomy 5.12-15. Every text on the Sabbath in the Bible is on the spectrum between these two poles.

North Pole = In Love God Created

Remember the Sabbath day, and keep it holy … For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and consecrated it.” (Exodus 20.7-11)

South Pole = In Love Yahweh Redeemed

Observe the Sabbath day and keep it holy … Remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt and the LORD your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day.” (Deuteronomy 5.12-15)

Basking in Love that Creates 

Psalm 92 brings the pilgrim in the Temple, or the faithful Jew in the synagogue in Galilee or Diaspora, to the themes listed above. The Psalm is divided in three “stanzas” which consist of essentially verses 1-4; verses 5-9; and verses 10-15.

The psalm opens with confession and evokes creation in Genesis 1 (sabbath itself evokes creation). The confession is that it is “good” to praise or give thanksgiving. The word “good” could mean “rightness” or “appropriate.” But in this context the word seems to mean “it is pleasant” or “it feels good” as in Ps 147.1. Of course this may be a false dichotomy. But on the Sabbath day, Israel (and all biblical readers) are reminded that, in light of what God has done, it is pure joy to praise the Lord. Joy is the characteristic “mood” of sabbath observance in all Jewish places of civilization.

To praise Yahweh is to brag about and exalt his Hesed, God’s steadfast love. Israel believed, correctly, that Yahweh did not create the world merely because he was powerful enough to do it. God created because of love. Psalm 136.1-9 thunders over and over (9x in 9 verses) that each act of creation was Hesed.

O give thanks to the LORD, for he is good,
for his hesed endures forever … (3x)
Who alone does great wonders,
for his hesed endures forever;
who by his wisdom made the heavens,
for his hesed endures forever;
who spread out the earth on the waters,
for his hesed endures forever;
who made the great light
for his hesed endures forever;
the sun to rule over the day,
for his hesed endures forever;
the moon and the stars to rule the night,
for his hesed endures forever.
(Psalm 136.1-9)

The Lyre of Megiddo unearthed in Israel dates to the age of King David. After years of studying the instrument, ancient music scholar, Peter Pringle reconstructed an exact replica. We can now listen to the music of the ten stringed lyre and enjoy its beauty as did David and the Lord.

So on Saturday’s, even today, it is “good” to talk up the love of God that surrounds us and gives us our very existence. When we see the flowers, we see love. When we see the bees, we see love. When we see the sun, the moon, the stars, we see love. When we see people created in God’s image, we see love.  Indeed when we are out under the zenith of the night sky, it is then we have some inkling of the infinite vastness of the hesed of God proclaimed in creation (cf. Psalm 103.11-12). God is the Master Artisan and creation is the “works of your hands,” (92.4) which cause God’s people to sing for joy. Beauty elicits awe, joy and praise.

So much joy in fact that God’s people grabbed lute’s, the ten-stringed harps and lyre’s they burst into praise. In fact they literally “play to your name, Most High” (92.2). (In the Septuagint of 92.2 we have the word psallo that Paul uses in Ephesians 5.19).

Enemies of God, the Joyless Ones

In Psalm 92. 8-9 there is a sudden shift. God’s people celebrate God, God’s love, and are in awe of God’s “works” in creation. One this day recalling the goodness of creation from the Master Artisan, the joyful refrain rises “how great are your works, O LORD! Your thoughts are very deep!” (v.5).  But the enemies of God, called “brutish” or “only someone who is a beast” or even “stupid” (NRSV)  are not in awe and refuse to join in the praise of Yahweh. These people, contrary to God’s redeemed people, fail to have eyes to see and ears to hear (note the contrast in v.11). These blind people, in a manner reminiscent of Ps 1, are fast growing and temporary like grass or weeds. They pass quickly. Often their only legacy in the world is the suffering they have left behind.

It is sad testimony indeed that we find Christians even today who are not enchanted by the created world that surrounds us. They view the world through utilitarian rather than doxological eyes. Psalm 92, meditated on the Sabbath day, inoculated God’s people from such astigmatism.

The Righteous, Those who Love God’s Works and Deeds

In Psalm 92. 12-15 we encounter those who see God’s glory in creation and who praise with gusto, Yahweh’s love (one can not overemphasize God’s love).

The righteous flourish like the palm tree,
and grow like a cedar in Lebanon.
They are planted in the house of the LORD;
they flourish in the courts of our God.
In old age they still produce fruit;
they are always green and full of sap,
showing that the LORD is upright;
he is my Rock, and there is no
unrighteousness in him.”

Date Palms in Israel. They grow to be 80 ft and can live between 200-300 yrs

These are the “righteous.” Righteous does not, either here nor anywhere else, in the Hebrew Bible mean sinless. It is not a claim to perfection (cf. Ps 119. 1, 176). It is simply a claim of love (I love you God) and a claim of faithfulness (I will serve you God). It is a relationship term. Husbands and wives, by the millions, can be (and are) faithful without being either perfect or flawless.

The righteous, those delighting in the joyful praise of God’s works and love are quite different from the brutish naysayers in verses 6-9. Again reminiscent of Psalm 1, they are like trees. The trees here are the date palm and the cedars of Lebanon. Date palms grow 70 to 80 feet and live over 200 years. While the cedars of Lebanon grow over 115ft in height but whose trunks range from 39 to nearly 50 ft in diameter and still produce fruit at estimated ages of 3000 years. God’s people remain vital “forever” essentially.

The image of the tree planted in the Temple also evokes creation. Humans lived in God’s presence in the Garden. Note all the trees and flowers carved into the sanctuary of the temple (1 Kgs 6.29-36). Those lost in the wondrous praise of God for his Sabbath work, are brought back to the Garden, living in the very Presence of God.

Thus Psalm 92 reminds God’s people of God’s love shown in creation but, on the Sabbath day, draws them, like Adam and Eve, back into the very Presence of God.  It is reminding us where we came from and pointing to where we are going. That is both the hope and the prayer of God’s people.

The Sabbath Psalm in the New Testament 

In the New Testament, the Hebrews Preacher does not disparage the Sabbath. Rather “sabbath rest” remains for God’s people (Hebrews 4.1-13). The Preacher imparts a theology that is very much in line with the outlook of Psalm 92, the “eschatological” dimension. The goal of the Sabbath has not yet been reached. It will be reached when God’s people are planted like trees in the very Presence of God. So the Preacher says Sabbath rest is something even Jesus Followers yet anticipate and look forward to. This is both future for the congregation in Hebrews 4 and for ourselves. It is something we look forward to … in the Presence of God. We long for the world that shabbat reminds us of: a world of joy, a world of faithfulness, a world of filled with love.

Cedars of Lebanon can be over 45 ft in diameter and over 3000 years. And still bear fruit.

Finally in the last book of the New Testament we find, interestingly, the saints in God’s Presence grab their harps as they are about to sing the Song of Moses and the Lamb, and the first line is a word for word quotation from Psalm 92.5,

Great and amazing are your works …” (Rev 15.3)

This statement follows the description John sees of the saints with “harps in their hands” which is the previous verse in Psalm 92, of making music to the name with the ten stringed harp and lyre (92.3). The righteous are indeed in the Presence of the Lord singing with bursts of joyful song. The Sabbath Psalm has been incorporated into John’s vision as if to say, what we have been singing for centuries has come to pass!

Final Thoughts

Psalm 92 is a wonderful text. Jesus sang it regularly. It reminds us, with it being assigned to the Sabbath, not only where the world came from (the love of God) but also points to where the world is going. Psalm 92, meditated upon on the Sabbath day, tells us God is restoring his communion with creation and we will live with him in his Presence.

Now a word to potential critics. This post does not advocate or bind a literal observance of the Sabbath on anyone. All are free to do so if they choose, however (Romans 14). Paul and the Jerusalem Church continued to honor the Sabbath day as Acts makes abundantly clear.

This post is simply a look at Psalm 92 and reminds us of what the Bible teaches about the meaning of Shabbat. That meaning is important to the whole Bible and it behooves us to grasp its significance.  And we need to recognize that the NT teaches that the Sabbath rest is the hope for all God’s People even today.

Living in the Presence of God.

Meditating on Psalm 92 on the Sabbath reminds that everything begins in and will end in divine love. I think we all need to be reminded of these things regularly.

Why not read Psalm 92 today … and every Saturday.


Daily Psalms

In the time of Jesus select Psalms were incorporated into Temple worship on a daily and weekly basis. These Psalms permeated the world of the average pious Jews life. They are:

Sunday, Jews sang Psalm 24
Monday, Jews sang Psalm 48
Tuesday, Jews sang Psalm 82
Wednesday, Jews sang Psalm 94
Thursday, Jews sang Psalm 81
Friday, Jews sang Psalm 93
Sabbath, Jews sang Psalm 92

Each of these Psalms are powerful. Jesus would have shared in this normal routine in a pious Jewish home in Nazareth. I encourage you to memorize them and (even if you do not read thru the Psalms each month) to join in Jesus’s day in remembering these Psalms on the days they were used.

Weekly Renewal: Praise

Thursday’s Psalm was 81. In ancient Israel, Psalm 81 was used in festival worship. It was used not only on Thursday but during the Feast of Tabernacles.

Psalm 84 has the flavor of covenant renewal much like Joshua 24. Israel’s festivals were times of remembering God’s Story of Grace and reaffirming our exclusive loyalty to him. Tabernacles is probably the specific festival under consideration in the original historical context (reference to the new and full moon in v.3 supports this).

The Psalm begins with a call to worship (vv 1-5). The Shofar is blown. The harps. The lyre. The festival, its praise in song and music, is a direct command of God from the time of Exodus (vv 4-5).

Sing aloud to God our strength;
shout for joy to the God of Jacob.
Raise a song, sound the tambourine,
the sweet lyre with the harp.
Blow the shofar at the new moon,
at the full moon, on our festal day.
For it is a stature for Israel,
an ordinance of the God of Jacob.
He made it a decree in Joseph,
when he went out over the land of Egypt.

Praise is a direct response to the wonder of Yahweh’s saving grace. Grace demands thanksgiving. On Thursday’s we are reminded of “joy factor” in being God’s people. Joy is a defining characteristic of biblical faith. Why? Because he saved us!

Images of Jesus, and the early church, grabbing a tambourine, shouting joyfully with the harps and trumpets, every Thursday may be the medicine some disciples need.

Weekly Renewal: Exhortation 

But worship in Psalm 81 is not only praise, it is preaching. Suddenly in v.6 there is a radical shift. We have, for the rest of the Psalm, first person speech (“I”) addressing the congregation of worshipers. This is the voice of Yahweh speaking to the Gathered People of God thru the priest. It is a divine sermon (direct divine speech is not infrequent in the Psalms). Yahweh testifies to hearing the cry of the suffering “nobodies” (the slaves) which Exodus 2.23f tells us.

The Israelites groaned  under their slavery, and cried out. Out of their slavery their cry for help rose up to God. God heard their groaning and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. God looked upon the Israelites and took notice of them.” (Ex 2.23-24)

The Exodus was God’s response to the cry of the oppression of the alien (Israel was an alien in Egypt), the powerless, the weak.

God, speaking thru the priest (just as he did the prophets), begins by reminding Israel of the Story. Reminding is necessary. Sometimes God’s people do enjoy the singing and the dancing but we forget the reason why we are are singing and dancing.  We may even say “we have been saved” but forget what salvation is.  So on Thursday’s as Jesus and other Jews found themselves in the temple, the Psalm reminded them of what salvation was really about.

They were Slaves.
They were burdened.
They were nobodies.
They were experiencing state sponsored terrorism against them.
Their baby boys were slaughtered.

On Thursday’s we are reminded what life is like without God’s salvation, a life of pain and injustice.

On Thursday’s we are reminded what life is like with God’s salvation, “I rescued you. I have set you free.

The apostle Paul is not the first one to announce that “it is for freedom that you have been set free.” This is the message of the Exodus from the beginning. God sets captives free by his grace.

God is the Redeemer.
God is the Liberator.

God is the One that responds to those who cry to him. The verses 6-7 recall Exodus 1 -15.

I hear the voice I had not known:
I relieved your shoulders of the burden;
your hands were freed from the basket.
In distress you called, 
and I rescued you;
I answered you in the secret place of thunder;
I tested you at the waters of Meribah


God is faithful. But God’s people usually are not faithful for very long at all. So God says “Hear, O my people” (v.8) and the rest of the Psalm is a plea for God’s people to “listen” (vv.8, 11, 13). The problem is that God’s people have listened to other gods. Our Story is that our God has saved us from slavery and that he would feed us (v.10). The false gods do not listen to us nor do they save us in our need. But … sadly that word is there … “my people did not listen to my voice” (v.11).  Attending the festival, showing up on Thursday’s at the temple, never missing “church,” does not mean we are listening to God’s voice.

Sometimes God’s people love the songs more than they love God.
Sometimes God’s people love the “acts of worship” more than they love God.
Sometimes God’s people love the Bible more than they love the God of the Bible.
Sometimes God’s people worship the idols of church, sound doctrine, and even faithfulness rather than the God who submits to none of our inferences, opinions, or notions.

On Thursday’s Psalm 81 confronts every serious religious person with the question, “do I love God or do I love things about God.” We are invited to refocus our commitment to God himself as Supreme above even our religion.  We must hear his voice.

God’s Lament 

In verse 13ff we see the yearning of God himself for his people. It is divine desire.

O that my people would listen to me;
Israel would not submit to me

If they did they would have the great blessings of the covenant of love. And we encounter that awesome promise

I would feed you with the finest of wheat
and with honey the rock I would satisfy you
” (v.16)

Clearly a reminder of the manna of heaven. Israel has it made.

I Choose You

Do we see what the call to worship and God’s sermon has done? In the festival, and in coming to the Temple on a Thursday, the Israelite is, in effect, brought back to Mt Sinai. He/she is confronted yet again with the decision of being God’s people. In the words of Joshua 24, “choose you this day.” At Sinai, we read,

Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD and all the ordinances; and all the people answered  with one voice and said, ‘All the words that the LORD has spoken we will do …” (Ex 24.3)

But God’s people didn’t. They shattered the covenant of love in a gross display of cheating on their Savior within just mere days of the “wedding.” The Golden Calf.

Psalm 81 comes to us each Thursday.  We are given the gracious opportunity to renew the covenant by affirming that we, each of us, have considered the Story of Salvation (note that God mentions his salvation acts before he mentions any commands – Exodus comes before Sinai) and we have decided to respond to Him. We get to say that we love GOD not just worship. We love God not just religion.  We love God not just the salvation God grants.  We love God above all things. (We have heard his voice). We say to our Abba, “I choose you!”

Thus in Jesus’ day, on Thursday, the faithful Jew is confronted with the choice he or she must make. We will keep the “festival!!” We will be on the Lord’s side. When Jesus was in the Temple on a Thursday he himself lifted his voice to the One with the Levites and their Shofars and Lyres and sing … and (can you see it) reaffirm his own faith and obedience to the Father. Jesus heard the voice … died on the cross. Can you see it?  I can.


Tuesday’s Psalm

This is our second installment in our series on the Psalms for the Days of the Week.  Before Jesus was born specific psalms had been assigned to days of the week in the temple. Worshipers coming to God’s house would hear and sing these psalms. Pious Jews integrated them into the daily rhythms of their lives. See my blog Psalms and the Temple: What Jesus and the Early Way Experienced for a complete listing of the daily psalms and how the psalms were integrated into temple worship.

Pious Jews, like Jesus’s family, adopted the rhythm of the temple in their daily lives. These psalms became reminders of what life before God was all about.  It was true then, as it is now, that God’s people often sing a better gospel than they believe and live. But by looking at these psalms we come closer to the world in which Jesus himself grew in “wisdom and favor” as Luke tells us plainly (Lk 2.40, 52).

The Tuesday Psalm, Ps 82. Unlike Lynyrd Skynyrd who sang “Tuesdays gone with the wind,” a song proclaiming the singer’s faithlessness as he is leaving his woman behind. our Tuesday psalm calls us to faithfulness.

Save the Weak 

In Jesus’s day, on Tuesday’s, pilgrims would be challenge with the fundamental principles of the kingdom of God: justice for the marginalized in our world. As they approach with their sacrifices in honor of their vows (like Paul in Acts 21.17-27) or of thanksgiving or atonement they would here the words ringing in the Temple,

Save the weak and the orphans;
do justice for the poor and the needy.
Set the needy and suffering free;
save them from the hand of the wicked
(82.3-4, my translation)

Here is the central charge of Yahweh to the rulers, the judges, the people. You are placed here in this age for a reason, to save the weak. To practice justice, mercy and faithfulness. To live the foundational core values of God’s own throne. Tuesday’s psalm brought the Israelite face to face with the heart of the matter.

Psalm 82 begins by telling us that God takes his place among “the assembly.” In the cultures that surrounded ancient Israel, it was believed that there was a “council of the gods.” This is reflected in Baal’s mythology but is seen in Greek mythology with Zeus and the gods of Olympus and in most pagan systems. In the ancient world these “gods” were supposed to ensure the practice of justice and mercy on Earth. But it is plain this does not happen. So in Psalm 82, Israel’s God has entered into their midst and decreed the “death of the gods” (v.7).

Also in Israel, it was believed that the divine sphere (God’s space) and the human sphere overlapped. This is often called “sacred space.” In Psalm 82 this means that what is happening in the divine sphere is mirrored in the human sphere.

In the human sphere those concerned with making sure the least of these (widows, orphans, aliens) are protected are those in power: Kings and Judges. The king, in Israel, is a representative of the God and he is supposed to use God’s very own justice to save the widows, the orphans and the aliens (see Psalm 72.1-3, 12-14).

When the God of Israel shows up in the assembly of the “gods,” or the “judges,” he puts them on trial for failure to discharge their reason for being. That is what is happening in v. 2 in this direct accusation,

How long will y’all [“you” is a plural] judge unjustly
and show partiality to the wicked?

The criteria of the trial of the gods/judges is no other than Yahweh’s personal attributes. The prophet Moses told Israel,

So now, O Israel, what does Yahweh require of you? …
Circumcise your heart, and do not be stiff necked any longer …
God shows no partiality, executes justice for the orphan and the widow,
and who loves the aliens providing them food and clothing.
You shall also love the alien
(Deuteronomy 10.12, 16-19).

God comes among the council of the “gods/judges” and demands to know why they are not behaving like him? Their job is to protect the weak from the powers that be. Instead they collude with the powers of oppression. So God decrees the death of the gods: “you shall die like mortals” (v.6).

Judgement in the king’s hall or in the city gates (cf. Ruth 4) was supposed bring salvation to the poor. But it did not. God declares that the gods/judges are dumb, blind, and ignorant thus bringing the Earth into turmoil. Failure to practice justice and mercy is not simply bad, it is an attack upon God’s kingdom. Justice and mercy are the foundations of God’s throne. As the Israelites in Gathered worship confessed,

righteousness and justice are the
foundation of your throne;
Hesed/steadfast love and faithfulness go before you
(Ps 89.14; cf. 97.2)

Or as Jesus’s echoing the themes of Tuesday’s psalm instructed us to pray, God’s will is not being done “on earth as it is in heaven!”

Your Kingdom Come

The Gathered congregation in the Temple on those Tuesday’s, and if Jesus was there on a Tuesday he would have joined the prayer, respond to verses 1-7 with the words,

RISE UP [i.e. from his throne], O God, judge the earth;
for all the nations belong to you” (v.8)

The congregation calls God to action. God needs to do what the “gods” and “judges” have not done. Save the poor and needy. God must come and save the world.

The gods of the nations are consigned to death. The judges share their fate. The nations, notice the universal claim made every Tuesday in the Temple, belong to the God of Israel. So Yahweh will banish the gods, he will dispense with the faux judges, and God himself will rule creation.

Psalm 82, especially the prayer in v.8, is the heart of Jesus’s instruction on prayer. Jesus taught his disciples to pray,

Your kingdom come,
your will be done,
on earth as in heaven
(Mt 6.9-10).

This is in fact what all pious Jews, and Jesus himself from his days as a child, had been praying every week. God come rule the world.

Israel was reminded every Tuesday, our offerings of sacrifice, and our songs of praise, are meaningless apart from saving the poor, the widows, the orphans, the aliens because we know that God has decreed the death of the false gods that trample on the weak.

Instead with God’s own coming to judge … salvation has finally arrived for even the poor. No wonder Jesus claimed that the Spirit of the Lord had anointed him to proclaim “forgiveness” (aphesin, same word used in Acts 2.38 beloved!) to the poor at the beginning of his ministry in Nazareth (Lk 4.18-19). In Jesus, God has “risen” from the throne to come rule the nations.

Jesus’s prayer is the prayer of every Israelite.


A mere ten verses, Psalm 24 is short psalm. The psalm was originally part of Israel’s worship processions, bringing the ark of the covenant and pilgrims into the sanctuary (this could have originally been the Tabernacle but would be the temple through most of Israel’s history).

Long before Jesus was born, however, Psalm 24 became the Psalm for the “first day of the week.” So in the Jerusalem Temple each Sunday, Psalm 24 was sung by the Levites and pilgrims coming to worship and pray in God’s house. Pious Jews copied this practice in the synagogue and in their homes as well. Whether Psalm 24 became the Psalm for the First Day through a prophet or a sage we do not know, but the association is a stroke of Spiritual genius.

Yahweh is King

The First Day is, first of all, a day of new beginnings because we remember the first day of creation itself. The first day when all was good, before sin vandalized God’s creation. Psalm 24.1-2 evokes the creation of world in Genesis 1.1-5.

Quite literally our text reads, this is the claim of all claims and all flows from it,

The LORD’s is the earth.

Yahweh’s ownership of the entire realm of earth is stated in no uncertain terms. Why is the earth the Lord’s? Because God founded it, God created it, God established it (vv. 1-2). The Creator is the King over it. Psalm 24, on the First Day of every week, reminds every Israelite that the world is not random, the world is not order less, the world is not threatened because God is Creator. “In the beginning God created … Day One” (Gen 1.1-5).

Yahweh is Owner Yet 

But we do not begin our week only by remembering that the good world began with the Creator. We begin our week by knowing what that means. The world belongs to the Creator. In fact we confess, as the Israelites did and Jesus did, that means God owns it. God is sovereign over it. That means God is King. Every inch of creation is God’s. Every thing and every person belong to God. He is the King of Glory (24.7-10). Our lives, our week, is in the hands of the King of Glory, the Sovereign Owner of all that exists. On the first day we confess that Yahweh is not simply God of Israel, some tribal deity, but King of all that exists. The sun, the moon, the stars, the birds of the air, the fish of the sea, and even the peoples of the world belong to Yahweh. God is yet King.

The Psalm of the First Day of the Week reminds us that God’s concern is not only for or about us. God’s concern is everything God made. Our enemies may not be God’s enemies! Long before Jesus (who drank the Spiritual water of the Psalms daily) Temple pilgrims are reminded – at the beginning of the week as at the beginning of Creation – all humanity is equally created and equally owned by the King.  A humbling way to begin our week with the Lord.

God’s people have not always grasped that last point though they have confessed it regularly. Some humans we have denied were important and may not even have a soul, this was regularly done in the late 19th century of black folks. But it was the Baptist preacher, of the 19th century, named Charles Haddon Spurgeon who grasped the point. Many in America in the late 19th century despised African Americans and declared that God did not care for them. Commenting on Psalm 24.1-2, Spurgeon noted that if a person (his example is”the negro and other despised races”) is a human then, “God claims that person” as his own creation, equally loved and cared for. God’s people easily slip back into effectively saying “God does not care for that human” because the reality is that we do not care for that human. But on the first day of the week, the Psalm reminds us the human race is one.

Creation and Worship

On the First Day of the Week, Psalm 24 also proclaims who among the human race can worship and come into the glorious Presence of the Lord. This too evokes Genesis 1. “The Spirit of God hovered on the face of the deep.” All life on earth, all blessing on earth, all anything on earth flows from God’s presence through the Spirit. Genesis is a temple text, Israel knew that for thousands of years before modern scholars

Psalm 24.3 has the Gatekeepers of the sanctuary thunder to those seeking entrance, “WHO shall ascend the hill/mountain? Who shall stand in his holy place?

The answer to this question is completely detached from ethnicity, gender or social status. Every Israelite that came to the temple in 700BC or AD 30, each one that recited Psalm 24 on the first day of the week was reminded that not only was Yahweh King of All, but that ALL the human race is called to acknowledge that. It is not JEWS who could come to the Presence. It was not Egyptians. It was not whites or blacks or browns. It was not the rich and powerful. The criteria has less than zero to do with race, gender, or social status.

Who can worship, who can enter the sacred space filled with God’s nourishing Spirit is a matter of integrity and the heart. Those who have “clean hands and pure hearts” (24.4) are allowed by the Gatekeepers to pass into the holy sphere beyond the gates. Neither of these criteria could be measured by the Gatekeeper. Only the seeker of Yahweh’s Presence knew if these criteria were met.

Clean hands” generally refers to how one treats another human and “pure heart” refers to inward devotion. So this is a way of saying to the pilgrims, keep the greatest commands: If you have you loved your neighbor and loved God you are allowed to enter the temple. Jesus, the greatest of all students of the Psalms, himself echoes this psalm in his famous Sermon on the Mount.

Blessed are the pure in heart heart for they shall see God” (Mt 5.8)

So the Gatekeepers say to the festive throng approaching the Temple,

Who shall ascend … those who have pure hearts …
Such is the company of those who SEEK HIM,
who SEEK the FACE of God
” (24.4, 6).

Love and Grace

On the First Day we are reminded that existence is a gift of grace. Being created is an act of divine love (cf. Ps 136). On the First Day we are reminded that an audience with the King requires that we love him and love all the King has made. Our love reflects Yahweh’s own love.

And on the First Day the Psalm for the First Day reminds us that our standing before God, our reception of blessing, is a matter of pure grace. On Sundays, Jews and Israelites, and all who pray Psalm 24 know that,

They will RECEIVE blessing FROM the LORD,
and faithfulness FROM God their Savior.

This is the Book of Romans in a single verse. As the week begins anew we are reminded yet again that relationship with God is something received, something that is given, something that is “from God.” Relationship with God is not an achievement. It does not flow from the Precision of our Obedience. It begins in grace. It continues in grace. It ends in grace. We do not bring faithfulness TO God rather it is received from God … the One who creates us is also the One who saves us (This is NT Christology in a nutshell as well). We receive blessing and we receive faithfulness.

The First Day of the Week and Psalm 24

The First Day is the day the world began. The First Day is when Pentecost, the celebrating of the covenant and receiving of the Torah, is held. Every Jew knew this. But as disciples of King Jesus, we are further down the Story of God and we know that on the First Day creation was REnewED in the Resurrection of the King. We know that the covenant was REnewED on the First Day in Acts 2 (Pentecost is on Sunday beloved, Leviticus 23.15-16).

Psalm 24 does not loose significance in light of the Messiah’s coming. Psalm 24 takes on greater significance and meaning than ever. On the day we gather as the People of God, the old question from the Gatekeeper is still truer than ever. On the First Day with Ps 24:

+ We celebrate that God is the Creator.
+ Confessing God’s Kingship we kneel in worship before God our Maker.
+ We confess that all humans are welcome and equal in God’s sight.
+ We confess that all humans are called to love the King and love those created by the King.
+ We confess that we receive blessing, we receive faithfulness, we are here “by grace.”

What a way to begin our fresh lease on life in a new week lived out before the Gracious King of Glory.

I encourage you to integrate Psalm 24 in the rhythm of your First Day of the Week.


Wonderful collection of sermons by women who have enriched God’s church. You should read it.

First Corinthians 11 is either ignored or it is abused. It is ignored because verses 4-5 do not fit with the invented “be silent” paradigm. It is abused because verses are not dealt with in their context and context. There are some difficult statements (Paul’s “supporting argumentation”) in this chapter we confess, but the actual point of the chapter does not seem in doubt when we pay attention to all of 11.2-16 not just a verse or two. A single verse is not an argument, rather a verse functions within the whole context. So to begin with there are four things that seem completely beyond question.

1) Paul endorses the praying and prophesying by women. This is a fact … though verses 4-5 that are ignored in the invented “be silent” paradigm.

2) While Paul does appeal to creation order in v.3 and 7-9 to seemingly support a patriarchal order what is ignored is the “NEVERTHELESS” in v.11f. Paul seems to subvert the “necessary inference” from those verses and says that man is from woman (v.12). Therefore in reality men and women “in the Lord” are inter and mutually dependent. In other words, Paul’s point does not end in the subjection of women in this text. Paul rather ends in mutuality and interdependence. That is equality.  ” Nevertheless, in the Lord woman is not independent of man [this is what is affirmed by subordinationists] nor man independent of woman [this is ignored].”

3) The passage celebrates creational distinctions that Paul believes are good in themselves. Men and Women are redeemed as men and women as he points out in 1 Cor 15 our “bodies” are raised/redeemed from death.

4) Paul’s concern is the bringing of shame and disrepute on the community.

In the long run we will not solve the debate over “kephale” (head) in this passage. But what cannot be denied is, as C. R. Nichol observed, “I would have you note carefully that Paul recognized the fact that men, as well as women were to ‘pray’ and ‘prophesy.‘”(God’s Woman, p.119).  Paul did not “flip flop” on this matter in the space of a page. As Nichol notes, the “silence” Paul mentions in 1 Cor 14: 1) is not on the grounds that is was “public,” and 2) “be very sure you get into your heart the fact that the ‘silence’ enjoined DID NOT INTERFERE with women prophesying” (p. 124).

The issue is not a “veil” which is not a good translation. It is a “head covering.” Neither Roman nor Greek women wore veils in public. However while performing liturgical acts, a head covering was worn by the woman (and in Roman contexts) some men. Those who did not, they let their hair down, were involved with Dionysius, Isis and Cybele or prostitutes. Paul did not want Corinthian women to be confused with pagan prophecy.

Again, the covering was to be the manner in which women exercised her rights of praying in the assembly and prophesying in the assembly. Donning the covering did not curtail women’s participation, rather it empowered it.

So Paul says the woman is to have a “symbol of authority over her head (v.10). “Authority” does not mean, as is supposed with no examination, the man’s authority over the woman. As has been noted by multiple scholars, if that is what it means then this is the only place it has such. This refers to the “exercise OF authority” by the woman herself rather than submission to it. Richard Hays notes the expression means “that the woman should take charge of her hair and keep it under control.”

We have no such custom” (v.16). What is the custom? If a person is not persuaded, Paul acknowledges some won’t be, and they are contentious, the apostle notes the churches of God have no such custom. The custom is not the covering but of being contentiousness. We do not have a tradition of fighting. Oh that the modern church believed that.

Paul knew the Hebrew Bible better than any one alive. Every time Paul went to the temple, two sets of gates reminded him of the legendary prophet Huldah, they were named in her honor. He knew the Scriptures not only taught there were women leaders of God’s people but that in the messianic age Joel 2.28-29 would be paradigmatic for renewed Israel.

And afterward,
    I will pour out my Spirit on all people.
Your sons and daughters will prophesy,
    your old men will dream dreams,
    your young men will see visions.
Even on my servants, both men and women,
    I will pour out my Spirit in those days.

Paul recognizes this in 1 Corinthians 11.4-5, women prophesy and women pray in the messianic community of God. That is the Church of God that is in Corinth.

But for Paul, Jews remained Jews because they were redeemed as Jews. Gentiles remained Gentiles because they were redeemed as such (1 Cor 7.17-18). And men remain men and women remain women. Why? Because was not a Gnostic and creation – as created by God – is GOOD. And his creation will be redeemed.  Ethnicity, Gender and social status is no longer a basis for division and oppression in God’s church rather the diversity of creation itself is now the basis of praise to the Creator God for his wisdom that is displayed in the church.

Paul wants the church to reflect the creational glory of God (Eph 3.9-10; cf. Rev 5.9-14). Women will appear as women. Men will appear as men. Jews will be Jews and Gentiles will be Gentiles. To make an analogy for today, it is as if Paul is saying men should not show up to church in dresses and women should not topless (cf. Hays).

But lest someone go overboard with verses 3 and 7-9, Paul says, those oft overlooked and ignored words,

NEVERTHELESS, in the Lord, woman is not independent of man or man independent of woman. For just as woman came from man [as Paul said in v.8] so man comes from through woman; but all things come from God” (vv. 11-12).

Paul proudly supports the prophetic notion that women pray and prophecy in God’s church … as women. And men pray and prophecy as men to reflect the glory of God’s creation that has been redeemed.

Perhaps the time has come for the modern church to repent from its stubborn resistance to the Holy Spirit in blocking the ministry of women God promised would happen and Paul said did happen. Our continual twisting of certain scriptures (two in particular) and our sweeping of inconvenient ones (a boatload of them) under the rug needs to be repented of.


See here my review of the D’Esta Love’s Finding their Voices in “And Your Daughter’s Shall Prophesy” A Review of Finding Their Voices: Sermons by Women in the Churches of Christ

1 Jun 2018

Ezekiel, His Guitar and Prophecy

Author: Bobby Valentine | Filed under: Bible, Ezekiel, Hebrew Bible, Music, Worship

I grew up in a religious fellowship that loathed instrumental music in worship. I heard many a sermon, lecture, and class on instrumental music. We have fought, divided and bloodied one another over instruments.

Sometimes our animosity towards instruments led us to misrepresent the biblical text in profound, and I would say unethical, ways. But my upbringing never allowed me to see just how pervasive instruments are in the Bible itself. These were just filtered out.

For years I was so fixated on “worship” that I never noticed instruments (and music) were associated with preaching or prophesying in the Bible. Preaching and prophesying are “acts of worship” not “separate and apart” from worship in Scripture. Many think biblical prophecy is akin to Nostradamus or fortune telling but such ideas of prophecy have nothing to do with biblical prophecy. Biblical prophecy is preaching, or proclaiming, the word of God. Sometimes that had a future element more often than not it was a call to covenantal faithfulness and repentance.

Have you ever noticed, when you look through Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea, etc that it is printed in meter just like the Psalms. This is because the prophets are poetry. The prophets were poets and singers. And what I never noticed for many years, because of my prejudice, was that prophecy (worship) and instruments typically went together through the “hand” of the Holy Spirit. Notice this text,

David … set apart the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun, who should PROPHESY [my emphasis] with lyres, harps, and cymbals … Of the sons of Asaph … who PROPHESIED [my emphasis] …” (1 Chronicles 25.1-3, read down to v.8)

This text clearly links, at least, some aspect of prophecy with music and even instruments. Asaph, etc feature in the Psalms … are the Psalms considered “prophecy” by the inspired Chronicler? I think so.

We know that “singers” used to go through the Ancient Near East and “perform” songs like Gilgamesh and dozens of other epics and ballads. They were the “classics” of the Ancient Near East And this is what we see in the prophet Ezekiel. In the following text, the Lord is lamenting the insincerity of the people. They like Ezekiel’s “guitar” work but don’t live out the song. (“Guitar” should be recognizable as a poetic license here)

They come to you as people and assemble before you, and they hear your words, but they will not obey them … To them you are like a singer of love songs, one who has a great voice and PLAYS WELL ON AN INSTRUMENT [my emphasis]” (Ezk 33.31-32)

Ezekiel was a poet, a singer, and he prophesied, that is he preached the word of God, with an instrument. Just like 1 Chronicles 25 describes. The reason the prophets are poetry is because they are songs. Songs are memorable. But notice that when God complained to Ezekiel it was not because he sang or played guitar but because the people did not “hear” and “obey” the Song.

All this is brought together through the prophet Habakkuk. Here we learn by “direct statement” (not inference) that prophets were associated with the Temple and worship. Here we learn that the song (or prayer) of the prophet was incorporated into temple worship and even with instruments. The book of Habakkuk concludes with a magnificent theophany of the God of Israel coming to redeem his wayward people evocative of the Exodus itself. Notice how chapter three begins,

A prayer of the prophet Habakkuk according to Shigionoth

This is a “heading” just like those in the book of Psalms itself. Then notice how the chapter ends

To the leader with stringed instruments” (3.19c)

Prophecy is preaching, praying, worship. Prophecy was poetry in motion … music. I do not know if every “sermon” was sung but a lot were. They came to hear Ezekiel play his guitar! They loved his singing. They did not love the song enough to join in and sing it (i.e. live it).

Not only did Israel sing praises to God through “instruments of music for the LORD” (2 Chron 7.6) but they had the word of God frequently given back to them through a prophet (preacher), a song, and a “guitar.”

Be blessed.

(This is an edited and slightly modified version of something I wrote on Facebook.) While I was on the treadmill this morning, I got a FB message from a person. I’ve never met this person. They have read my Psalms meditations and other writings via FB and this blog. So here is the question,

“Besides your claim in helping to know Jesus accurately, what practical value is the Old Testament in our walk with God?”

I have been thinking about it and for me the answer is very clear. I will look at the pastoral and discipleship values of the Hebrew Bible. (I assume this question was motivated by my response to the Andy Stanley stuff). I think it is an important question.

First, I begin with the Jesus thing. The Hebrew Bible is essential to understanding Jesus and the Gospel. This claim does not seem to be very popular in some circles but it can be sustained from a myriad of texts from Matthew to Luke to Acts to Romans. The first page of the New Testament connects Jesus to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.  Matthew and Luke claim that:

Jesus has an Old Testament Identity (Messiah/King of the Jews, Son of David, Son of God)
Jesus has an Old Testament Message (his preaching is bringing out the meaning of the law and the prophets)
Jesus has an Old Testament Mission (his mission is defined explicitly in terms of what God is doing through Israel for the world)
Jesus has an Old Testament Ethic (his message and mission and ethic is Jubilee)

The last thing Jesus did in those forty days with the disciples before the ascension was to teach the disciples Old Testament theology.  Luke 24.44-49.  When the sermons of Acts are examined they follow this outline of OT theology of Jesus (Acts 2.14-36; 3. 11-26; 8.26-35; 13.15-43; Cf Romans 1.2-4; 1 Corinthians 15.1-4; 2 Timothy 2.8)

The Hebrew Bible is the ink used for nearly every page of the NT.  This does not imply that a person has to be a biblical scholar to become a disciple.  It means only that the meaning of the Gospel has meaning in relationship to Hebrew Bible.

Second, Paul told Timothy the Hebrew Bible was inspired by God to train us, to equip us, to show us what righteousness, to teach us doctrine, to make us wise in the way of salvation and equip us for every good work (2 Timothy 3.14-17). I believe Paul. But experience has taught me the truth of what Paul says. Most, including preachers, do not seem to know or they simply ignore that this text is speaking primarily about the what is called the “Old Testament” today.  The Old Testament is not merely, simply, or primarily a collection of predictive prophecies about the future Messiah.  Paul gives a much more comprehensive picture of the purpose of the Hebrew Scriptures here in 2 Timothy 3.14-17.  What follows below builds on this text.  For more on Paul’s profoundly Jewish point of view expressed in 2 Timothy 3.16-17 see my 2 Timothy 3.16, The Spiritual Gift of Wisdom unto Salvation in the ‘Old Testament.”

Third, I have read lots of books by people who suffer. They may suffer pain, illness, abuse, death, persecution or many other forms of hardship. I have learned that the Hebrew Bible is a gold mine for processing and providing the language of faith to talk about this suffering. In a recent work I helped edit (along with John Mark Hicks and Christine Fox Parker, Surrendering to Hope: Guidance for the Broken)  passages were listed that fellows sufferers found meaningful, while in the darkness, two thirds of them come from the so called Old Testament.

While going through the dark shattering days of divorce, sickness, the loneliness of despair, there was nothing in the Bible as relevant as the Hebrew Bible. The Psalms, Jeremiah, Job, and other passages speak with power, and authority, “Today” (to swipe a line from the Hebrews Preacher). As a side note, I find it interesting that the “dark” passages in the Hebrew Bible often come under criticism many times by certain people, including C. S. Lewis. But frequently it is those very passages are the ones that shine the “brightest” in the dark days, because one must actually suffer to understand them. Contrast Lewis in his Reflections on the Psalms; the Problem of Suffering and then (after he suffered) A Grief Observed. The dark passages are “gospel.”  We just have to learn to hear them in our modern world.

Fourth, building on #3, in the realm of loss and devastation there is nothing (in my experience) that empowers faith more than the laments in the Psalms. Here we see exactly what Paul meant, we are “trained in righteousness” and made “wise” through the Spirit himself in the Psalms.

Fifth, the Hebrew Bible is an amazing source of hope in God’s grace. No one in the Bible is meant to be a moral example except Jesus. As a rabbi friend once told me, the “Bible” (Hebrew Bible for him) is the astonishing testimony of His patience toward schmucks and how He even uses them for his glory. Blessed be Ha-shem.” So many times in our churches we assume (and often say outright) that the only folks of value to God are Mother Theresa types … but I’m more the David type! The Isaacs, Jacobs, Samsons, Hoseas need to know the message of God. God is not looking for perfection in any one. The Hebrew Bible teaches us that Yahweh is looking for the faith that is about the size of a mustard seed and he will make miracles with it (Jesus knew this).  The New Testament itself points to the long record of women and men used by God who were just flawed people, see Hebrews 11. The Hebrew Bible is the testimony that Damaged Goods are the targets of God’s grace and hesed. What a source of hope.  See my blog Damaged Goods: A Biblical Pattern of Grace & Renewal. The testimony to grace and faith is deeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeep in Hebrews 11.

Sixth, the Hebrew Bible shows us what a balanced, loving, faith filled, godly life looks like. The “Wisdom literature” is a gold mine here. Not every question in life has an easy pat answer. The Wisdom literature is an exercise in faith and discernment on how to live. Not just Proverbs. Ecclesiastes and Song of Songs (and if you are brave throw in Sirach) – yes we need to read Song of Songs more – teach us that God created us to live life now. This did not change when Jesus came. Some well meaning people turn the Gospel in Gnosticism when they think it (i.e. salvation) is only about dying and going to heaven. But the Gospel is about living as God intended humans to live both now and in the new age of the new heavens and new earth. Now matters. Now is not just a waiting period to die. 

Seventh, the Hebrew Bible with its profound doctrine of creation, of the cosmos and humans, teaches us to respect God’s world. We learn what it means to be a human being and why it matters. We learn what we were created for. Jesus as the “second Adam” has meaning in relation to what God intended humans (the first Adam) to be in the first place. Paul could never be more “Old Testament” than he is in Romans 8 (restoration of cosmos and restoration of humanity).

Eighth, the Hebrew Bible teaches us how to pray. Prayer is ubiquitous in the First Testament. The Lord’s Prayer, as many folks have observed for millennia, is basically an outline of the Psalter. Jesus did not invent prayer. But we learn prayer from Hagar, Moses, Hannah, David, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and (especially) the Psalms reign supreme. I confess that I preached for years and had no clue what prayer was. The Hebrew Bible taught me how to pray.

Ninth, the Hebrew Bible teaches us how to worship and what it means to worship God. Oh, I know, many will balk at this. So be it. But worship and dwelling in the presence of God is central to the Hebrew Bible. It is simply assumed in the “New Testament” writings. We learn who to worship. We learn why we worship. We even learn ways of worship. According to the Hebrews Preacher it is none other than Jesus himself who leads us in the praise of God in, and thru, the Psalms,

for this reason Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sister, saying,
‘I [Jesus] will preach/proclaim your name [God’s name] to my brothers and sisters,
in the midst of the congregation I [Jesus] will praise you [God]‘” (Hebrews 2.11-12)

Here the book of Hebrews directly quotes Jesus of Nazareth but it is not from the Gospels.  This quotation is from Psalm 22.22.  Jesus is the minister of worship in the assembly of Christians and he is leading worship through the Book of Psalms.  Whatever else the Hebrews Preacher may have meant by the “old covenant has become obsolete” he did not include Psalms in that statement.  Jesus is preaching, Jesus is teaching, and Jesus is leading Christians in worship in the Psalms.

One of the best books that explores the Jesus ties of the Old and New Testaments.

Tenth, the Hebrew Bible teaches on almost every page, the importance of justice, mercy and faithfulness in everything we do as People who belong to God. We are created out of love. We are created for love to others. The Hebrew Bible teaches this. I am redeemed by mercy for mercy to give mercy to others. The Hebrew Bible teaches that while we certainly have a personal, loving, wonderful relationship with God it is by no means private and for ourselves. We are in relationship with Yahweh to be in relationship with his beloved creation and his beloved image bearers.

So many times we imagine the “authority of Scripture” to consist, essentially, in a series of permissions. That is authority is is to tell us what we can and cannot do (and in my religious tradition) primarily in a church service. But that is not the primary function of the authority of Scripture in either Testament. The authority of Scripture is its power to mold us and shape us in our every day life into people that reflect the holiness of God in the zest of daily life.

The Hebrew Bible is 100% authoritative and does what the Holy Spirit inspired it to do as Paul claims in 2 Timothy 3.14-17.  Paul was right.

This is my answer to the question.

P. S.

I cannot recommend enough reading the wonderful, outstanding and gracefully written book by Christopher J. H. Wright called Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament.  If you have never read the book may I urge you to get a copy and read it very carefully.  There is a link just click on the title.